An advertisement for Dr. Jos. Jullien’s spiroscope. Photo kindly provided by Luarent Jullien, a descendant of Dr. Jullien.
Further information (also provided by Laurent Jullien) on Dr. Jullien can be found at:
1. Laurent Jullien, Le SPIRO du docteur Jos Jullien, Clystère, n° 51, p. 28-45, juin 2016.
2. Laurent Jullien, Le Spiroscope à eau du médecin-artiste Jos Jullien, de la médecine au bien-être, La Nouvelle Cigale uzégeoise, n°12, p 11-16, Lucie éditions, Nîmes, décembre 2015.
Henderson M, Apthorp GH. Rapid method for estimation of carbon monoxide in blood. Brit Med J 1960: 2: 1853
“Each subject washed the nitrogen from his lungs by breathing 100% oxygen from a simple open circuit (Fig. 1) for a period of three minutes. At the end of this time he was instructed to take a maximum inspiration and hold his breath. The three-way tap (T) was then turned and exhaled through a carbon dioxide absorber, previously washed out with oxygen into an empty and rebreathed from this bag for a further three minutes. The contents of the bag were then analysed for oxygen by the Haldane method and for carbon monoxide, using an infra-red meter.”
From: Marshall R. A rebreathing method for measureing carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Amer Rev Resp Dis. 1977; 115: 587-588
“The apparatus consists of a mouthpiece, A T-piece to which bag 1 is attached by a short length of 1.2 cm bore rubber tubing that can be closed by a surgical clamp, and a 3-way tap, to the side arm of which the reservoir bag (bag 2) is attached. Bag 2 should be able to contain about 3 liters and bag 1 500 ml when just distended. Measurement of the capacity of bag 1 is important because the intention is just to distend the bad when collecting sample 1 so that the volume of gas removed from the re-breathing circuit is known.
“Into bag 2 is measured accurately (by gas syringe) 2 liters of the helium-CO mixture used for the single-breath method and 100 ml of oxygen. This volume of oxygen is added to replace most of the oxygen that will be consumed during rebreathing. The subject with noseclip attached breathes quietly through the mouthpiece. At the end of a normal expiration the tap is turned to connect bag 2 and the subject is instructed to breath rapidly, almost emptying the bag at each breath. At about the tenth second, most conveniently at the start of an expiration, the clamp on bag 1 is released and gentle pressure is applied to bag 2 to stop it filling so that the expired gas goes into bag 1 and just fills it. The tube to this bag is then re-clamped. The subject is encouraged to breathe hard and exactly 20 sec (or similar time interval measured by a stop watch) the tap is turned to close off bag 2. The contents of bags 1 and 2 are analyzed for CO and helium.”