Hypoventilation is defined as ventilation below that which is needed to maintain adequate gas exchange. It can be a feature in lung diseases as diverse as chronic bronchitis and pulmonary fibrosis but determining whether it is present of not is often complicated by defects in gas exchange. When desaturation occurs during a CPET (i.e. a significant decrease in SaO2 below 95%) this is a strong indication that the primary exercise limitation is pulmonary in nature and from that point the maximum minute ventilation and the Ve-VCO2 slope can show whether the limitation is ventilatory or instead due to a gas exchange defect. But in this circumstance what what does it mean when both the maximum minute ventilation and Ve-VCO2 slope are normal?
Recently a CPET came across my desk for an individual with chronic SOB. The individual recently had a full panel of pulmonary function tests:
|MIP (cm H2O):||11.5||18%|
The reduced TLC showed a mild restrictive defect. At the same time the relatively normal DLCO indicates that the restriction is probably not due to interstitial lung disease and more likely either a chest wall or a neuromuscular disorder, both of which can prevent the thorax from expanding completely but where the lung tissue remains normal. The reduced MIP and MEP tends to suggest that a neuromuscular disorder is the more likely of the two.
I take this with a grain of salt however, and that is because this individual never had pulmonary function tests before and for this reason there is no way to know what their baseline DLCO was prior to the restriction. At the same time far too many individuals perform the MIP/MEP test poorly and low results are not definitive, and in this case in particular the results are so low the individual should have been in the ER, not the PFT Lab.
The CPET results were somewhat complicated, in that a close inspection showed both pulmonary and cardiovascular limitations.